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Product Name:Acetone (medicinal excipients)
Alias: 2-Propanone
CAS NO.:67-64-1
Molecular formula:C3H6O
Molecular weight:58.08
Appearance:colorless liquid
EINECS NO.: 200-662-2
Melting point: -94.9℃
Boiling point: 56.5℃
Density: 0.7899g/cm3
Saturated vapor pressure: 24kPa (20℃)
Critical temperature: 235.5℃
Critical pressure: 4.72MPa
Log value of octanol/water partition coefficient: -0.24
Ignition temperature: 465℃
Solubility: miscible with water, miscible with most organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, chloroform, oil, hydrocarbon, etc.

Acetone description

Acetone exists in nature in a free state. Tea oil, turpentine essential oil, and citrus essential oil all contain acetone; human urine and blood, animal urine, and tissues and body fluids of marine animals contain small amounts of acetone.

Acetone chemical properties

Acetone is a representative compound of aliphatic ketones, and it has typical reactions of ketones. For example: an adduct that forms colorless crystals with sodium bisulfite. It reacts with hydrogen cyanide to generate acetone cyanohydrin. Under the action of reducing agent, isopropanol and pinacol are generated. Acetone is relatively stable to oxidizing agents. Not oxidized by nitric acid at room temperature. When acid potassium permanganate strong oxidant is used as oxidant, acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water are generated. Bimolecular condensation occurs in the presence of a base to generate diacetone alcohol.

2mol of acetone in the presence of various acidic catalysts (hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride or sulfuric acid) to generate mesityl oxide, and then addition with 1mol of acetone to generate phorone (diisopropylidene acetone). Under the action of concentrated sulfuric acid, 3mol of acetone is removed from 3mol of water to generate m-trimethylbenzene. In the presence of lime, sodium alkoxide or sodium amide, it is condensed to form isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one).

In the presence of acids or bases, condensation reactions occur with aldehydes or ketones to form ketone alcohols, unsaturated ketones and resinous substances. It can be condensed into bisphenol A with phenol under acidic conditions. The α-hydrogen atom of acetone is easily replaced by halogen to generate α-haloacetone. With sodium hypohalite or alkali solution of halogen to generate haloform. Acetone and Grignard reagent undergo an addition reaction, and the addition product is hydrolyzed to obtain a tertiary alcohol. Acetone and ammonia and its derivatives such as hydroxylamine, hydrazine, phenylhydrazine, etc. It can also undergo condensation reactions. In addition, acetone is cracked at 500~1000°C to generate ketene. Through silicon-aluminum catalyst at 170~260℃, isobutylene and acetaldehyde are generated; at 300~350℃, isobutylene and acetic acid are generated. It cannot be oxidized by weak oxidants such as silver ammonia solution and newly prepared copper hydroxide, but can be catalyzed by hydrogenation to form alcohol.

Acetone applications

Acetone is an important organic synthesis raw material for the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonates, plexiglass, medicines, pesticides, etc. It is also a good solvent for coatings, adhesives, acetylene in cylinders, etc. Also used as diluent, cleaning agent, extractant. It is also an important raw material for the manufacture of acetic anhydride, diacetone alcohol, chloroform, iodoform, epoxy resin, polyisoprene rubber, methyl methacrylate, etc. It is used as solvent in smokeless powder, celluloid, acetate fiber, spray paint and other industries. It is used as an extractant in oil and other industries.