Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-12-28 Origin: Site
The main components of rosemary extract are rosmarin, salvianol and muriatic acid. Several main components of rosemary extract have strong antioxidant activity. It has obvious effect in preventing oil oxidation and maintaining meat flavor.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), also called You'an Grass, is a small evergreen shrub of Salvia genus in Labiatae. It is native to Europe, North Africa and the Mediterranean coast. In recent years, it has been planted in Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian and other provinces and regions in China. Rosemary is a multipurpose cash crop, from which antioxidant and rosemary essential oil can be extracted. The main components of antioxidants are diterpenoids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and other compounds with antioxidant functions; Rosemary essential oil is a liquid oil composed of more than 30 volatile components.
Rosemary extract has high efficiency, safety and other characteristics, and is widely used in cosmetics, perfume, soaps, air fresheners, insect repellents, medicine, various animal and vegetable fats, animal feed, meat products, seafood, flour, sauce, condiments, baked goods, fried products, natural pigments, essence, biological pesticides, tobacco and other fields, especially in the treatment of blood malignancies, cardiovascular diseases, anti-cancer Inhibiting HIV infection, treating indigestion, preventing Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, hyperuricemia and respiratory diseases have brought many conveniences for production and life. In Europe, rosemary has a long history as a food flavor, and has been used in cosmetics, food and medicine. The existing research shows that rosemary has obvious effects in preventing oil oxidation and maintaining meat flavor. Japan has developed a series of rosemary antioxidant products.
Rosemary extract mainly includes such terpenoids as salvianol, rosemary dialdehyde, epirosmarin, epirosmarin methyl ether, murine oxalic acid, murine oxalic acid methyl ester, rosmarin, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, hesperidin, plantain, genkwarin, vanillin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ferulic acid and other phenolic acids α- Pinene, tricyclic terpenoids, p-cymene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor α- Terpineol β- Rosmarin essential oil composed of terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, etc. According to the solubility of these substances in water, they can be divided into two categories: water-soluble extract and fat soluble extract.
Antioxidant action mechanism. Rosemary is now recognized as a highly effective natural antioxidant. Antioxidants can be divided into:
(1) Free radical terminators, most of which are phenolic compounds, such as tert butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA), di tert butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and tocopherol;
(2) Reducing agents, such as ascorbic acid and its salts, sulfite and its salts, riboflavin, etc;
(3) Chelating agent, such as EDTA, citric acid, phytic acid, etc;
(4) Monolinear oxygen inhibitors, such as carotene. Rosemary antioxidant is not only a free radical terminator, but also a singlet oxygen inhibitor.
In addition to flavonoids, the antioxidant components extracted from rosemary are mainly salvianol, muriatic acid, rosmarinic acid and rosmarinol, which all have the active part of phenolic diterpenoids. In addition, rosemary also contains rosemary diphenol, rosemary quinone and other different phenols. These phenols cooperate with each other to show the overall antioxidant capacity. These antioxidant components of rosemary, as chain breaking free radical terminators, inhibit the progress of peroxidation chain reaction by capturing peroxy radicals. Because the generated phenoxy radicals are relatively stable, they react slowly with lipid compounds, thus blocking the transmission and growth of free radical chains and inhibiting the progress of oxidation process.
Rosmarinic acid is a phenolic acid compound with certain physiological activity. Its structural feature is that there are four - OH on two benzene rings. Therefore, it is an effective antioxidant in rosemary. The experimental results showed that rosmarinic acid had mild antithrombotic effect, and its mechanism might be related to anti platelet aggregation and increasing fibrinolytic activity.
Huang Liandong and others reported that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of rosmarinic acid may be: (1) related to inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in arachidonic acid metabolism. (2) It inhibits the synthesis of complement dependent PGI2 and interferes with the activity of C3 invertase in different ways. (3) Anti oxidation and free radical elimination.
At present, the antioxidant function of rosemary is mainly used in food antioxidants and preservatives. The dried leaves of rosemary have a long history as food spices. Modern research shows that the non-volatile components of rosemary have obvious antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity of its main effective component salvianol is equivalent to BHA, and the antioxidant activity of rosemary phenol is 5 times that of BHT and BHA. It is a new generation of pure natural antioxidant, completely avoiding the toxic side effects of synthetic antioxidants and the weakness of high-temperature decomposition. Toxicology experiment and high temperature frying experiment proved that the product has the characteristics of safety, high efficiency, heat resistance, broad-spectrum, etc. The unique antioxidant function of rosemary has been extensively studied and applied abroad, but the research in this field in China has just started, and its application is almost blank.
Research status of antioxidation of rosemary at home and abroad
The United States and Japan were the first countries to study rosemary antioxidants. In Japan, 95% acetic acid extract of rosemary is used to make an additive to prevent essence and flavor from deteriorating, and it is added to natural food pigments such as carotenoids to prevent oxidation and fading. After more than ten years of research on rosemary, the Chinese Academy of Sciences has not only completed the experiment of introduction and cultivation, but also achieved gratifying results in the extraction, separation and structure identification of antioxidant active ingredients, antioxidant efficiency experiment, research on production process and supercritical CO2 extraction process, and research on the aroma characteristics of rosemary essential oil production components.
Salviol has been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry as an antioxidant and antimicrobial additive. Hong C.T. et al. found through long-term and short-term animal model studies that rosemary extract and its components have potential inhibitory effects on the biological growth of tumor. Rosmarinic acid has obvious antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic activities. This product is expected to be developed into a new antithrombotic drug.
It is expected to solve the oxidation problem of chilled pork
Oxidation mechanism of chilled pork: the oxidation of lipids, especially unsaturated fatty acids, is the main cause of meat deterioration. When unsaturated fatty acids are subjected to a series of reactions under the action of oxygen in the air, the oxidation products are further decomposed into low-grade fatty acids, aldehydes and ketones. This oxidative degradation changes the quality of products, such as color, aroma, tissue structure and even nutritional components. This change of fatty acids is mainly completed by the oxidation of free radicals, which is divided into three stages.
Cool the antioxidation of pork. In meat, there is a balance between oxidation and antioxidation. The main influencing factors are: substrate of oxidation (fatty acid, oxygen); Oxidation intensifiers (excessive metal elements, enzymes, iron containing proteins); antioxidant; Therefore, the prevention of oxidative deterioration of meat can be achieved by changing the oxidation substrate, reducing oxidation enhancement and using antioxidants. In the process of antioxidation of chilled pork, the former two will change the meat composition or environment, so the antioxidation of chilled pork is often achieved through the use of antioxidants.
Food antioxidants include synthetic antioxidants and natural antioxidants. Synthetic antioxidants include tert butyl p-cresol (BHT), tert butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), etc. However, in the 1970s, people found that excessive BHT and BHA could cause the liver of animals to increase and have the possibility of carcinogenesis, so people paid more and more attention to natural antioxidants. The common natural antioxidants are VC, VE, rosemary, tea polyphenols, etc. They not only have strong antioxidant capacity, but also attract people's attention for their safety. Therefore, in recent years, natural antioxidants have been widely used in food. The application of rosemary antioxidant in cooling pork is just around the corner.
From the survival test of drosophila melanogaster, it can be seen that each dose group of rosemary extract can prolong the life of drosophila melanogaster, and with the increase of rosemary extract concentration, there is a dose effect relationship in a certain concentration range. The median time of death, average life span and maximum life span of drosophila melanogaster in the 5mg/mL dose group were lower than those in the other two dose groups, and there was no significant difference in average life span compared with the control group. This may be related to the strong smell of rosemary extract, which affects the intake of drosophila; It may also be that a higher dose of rosemary extract may have some toxic effects.
Studies at home and abroad have shown that rosemary extract is a highly effective natural antioxidant, and its antioxidant components mainly include salvianol, muriatic acid, rosmarinol and rosmarinic acid. Wang Hong and others found that rosmarinic acid can improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes, clear free radicals, reduce the production of lipid peroxide, and play a role in delaying aging. The results showed that after 30 days of feeding rosemary extract, the 1mg/mL and 3mg/mL dose groups could significantly increase the antioxidant enzyme activity of drosophila melanogaster, inhibit the production of lipid peroxide MDA, and effectively delay aging. It is speculated that the mechanism of rosemary extract to delay aging may be that the antioxidant components in rosemary extract can improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body, eliminate excessive free radicals, maintain the balance of free radical metabolism, thereby reducing the lipid peroxidation of biofilm caused by free radicals, and protecting the normal metabolism of the body.