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Hemoglobin iron: It is iron bound to hemoglobin, porphyrin in myoglobin and encephaloglobin. It is directly absorbed by intestinal mucosal epithelial cells in the form of porphyrin iron. Generally, it is not affected by inhibition factors such as phytate or promotion factors such as VC. What affects the absorption of both types of iron is the amount of iron stored in the body.
The iron in the diet is divided into heme iron and non heme iron. The heme iron is easy to be absorbed by the human body, mainly in the red meat, liver and blood of animals, and the non heme iron is mainly in plant food, not easy to be absorbed by the human body.
Fe: Iron is the most essential trace element in human body, with 3-5 g.
1. The existing form of iron in the body:
(1) Functional iron: Hemoglobin: 60-75%
Iron containing enzymes: about 1%, such as cytochrome oxidase, catalase and peroxidase.
(2) Storage iron (25%): transferrin
Ferritin is the main form of body iron reserve
Hemosiderin is the deposit when iron is too much
2. Factors affecting iron absorption
(1) Non heme iron
The absorption of non heme iron is affected by many factors, including:
1) Phytate, oxalate, phosphate and carbonate
2) Tannin and polyphenols
3) Dietary fiber: mainly cellulose and hemicellulose
4) Gastric acid deficiency or excessive use of antacid
Therefore, iron absorption of plant food is low, such as 1% for rice, 5% for wheat, 3% for corn, 7.5% for soybean, and 2% for spinach.
(2) Heme iron:
It is iron bound to porphyrin in hemoglobin and myoglobin, and it is directly absorbed by intestinal epithelial cells in the form of porphyrin iron. Generally, it is not affected by inhibition factors such as phytate or promotion factors such as VC.
What affects the absorption of both types of iron is the amount of iron stored in the body.
Low intake of heme iron:
Iron deficiency anemia is a common disease in infancy. It is mainly caused by the lack of iron. In infants, the source of iron is largely dependent on food. There are two sources of iron in food:
One is heme iron, which comes from foods with high animal protein, such as lean meat, animal liver, animal blood and fish. These foods not only have high iron content, but also are not affected by other foods in the diet during absorption.
The other is non heme iron, which comes from vegetable, grain, red bean and other plant foods.
During the baby feeding, many parents like to eat fish and shrimp (shrimp has low iron content) for their baby. They feel that meat is not easy to cook, and the baby cannot chew and digest; It is believed that the liver is an organ for detoxification, in which there are many "poisons" that are rarely given to the baby, so that the intake of heme iron is insufficient. It also reduces the absorption of non heme iron. In order to prevent iron deficiency anemia, in addition to encouraging breastfeeding (high iron absorption rate in breast milk), formula should be used when breast milk is insufficient. After 4 months, in addition to fortified nutritious rice flour, liver paste and meat paste should be added gradually after 6 months to increase heme iron. In addition, vegetables and fruits should be supplemented at the same time. The fruits rich in vitamin C include oranges, kiwi, strawberries, etc. It is better to eat them immediately after meals to promote iron absorption, so that the effect will be better.