Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-01-06 Origin: Site
Rosmarinic acid (RosA for short) is an organic compound, which is a water-soluble natural phenolic acid compound isolated from rosemary, a plant of Labiatae.
Rosmarinic acid is widely distributed and mainly exists in various plants of Labiatae, Lithospermum, Cucurbitaceae, Tiliaceae and Umbelliferae, especially in Labiatae and Lithospermum.
Rosmarinic acid is a natural antioxidant with strong antioxidant activity, which helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals, thus reducing the risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. Rosmarinic acid has strong anti-inflammatory activity, and it also has antibacterial, anti-virus and anti-tumor activities. Rosmarinic acid has shown its important application value in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics and other fields.
Rosmarinic acid is a water-soluble substance. Low content of rosemary comes from light yellow to brown powder, while high content is white powder; Easy to absorb moisture; It has the special herb smell of rosemary; Melting point: 171 ℃~175 ℃, appearing blue-green when encountering ferric chloride potassium ferricyanide solution.
Stability: Rosmarinic acid has good stability. Salt and sucrose had no effect on the stability of rosmarinic acid; PH and temperature had little effect on the stability of rosmarinic acid. The results showed that rosmarinic acid was more suitable for storage and use under acidic and low temperature conditions; Light has a great influence on rosmarinic acid, so it should be kept away from light as far as possible; Ca2+and Mg2+have a greater impact on the stability of rosmarinic acid, while other metal ions have a smaller impact on rosmarinic acid. When using, avoid contact with calcium and magnesium; Low concentration of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate have little effect on the stability of rosmarinic acid, so they should be added appropriately according to the hygienic standard for food additives; Ascorbic acid has certain effect on rosmarinic acid, and low concentration has little effect; The oxidant hydrogen peroxide has great effect on rosmarinic acid; The reducing agent sodium pyrosulfite has little effect on rosmarinic acid.
Rosmarinic acid extract pharmacological action
1. Antioxidant effect
Rosmarinic acid has a strong activity of scavenging free radicals and antioxidation. The results showed that the mechanism was that rosmarinic acid and unsaturated fatty acid competitively combined with lipid peroxy group to stop the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation and reduce the rate of lipid peroxidation, while rosmarinic acid was oxidized to quinone form; Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the respiratory burst of neutrophils and the release of lysosomes by reducing the intracellular calcium concentration; Inhibits the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein regulated by endothelial cells. The antioxidation of rosmarinic acid is related to its structure. Studies have shown that o-diphenol hydroxyl is the material basis for scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the conjugated double bond at C3 position has a synergistic effect.
2. Antidepressant effect
Rosmarinic acid has antidepressant effect on animal model of depression. The experiment was carried out on the cell proliferation of hippocampus in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis was carried out with bromodeoxyuridine antibody to explore its mechanism of action. It was found that in the rosmarinic acid treated group, the labeled value-added cells increased. Combined with the forced swimming test of the animal model of depression, it was shown that rosmarinic acid at least partially propagated through the newborn cells of hippocampus and produced an antidepressant like effect.
3. Antibacterial effect of rosmarinic acid
Rosmarinic acid has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and has an inhibitory effect on bacteria and fungi. Rosmarinic acid has obvious inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Ralstonia solani. It is scientifically found that rosmarinic acid can inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of streptococcus caries and streptococcus mutans, and reduce their glucosyltransferase activity, indicating that rosmarinic acid can be used for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases. The study on antibacterial mechanism of rosmarinic acid shows that rosmarinic acid can increase the permeability of bacterial cell membrane, cause a large amount of leakage of sugars and proteins, and affect the normal metabolism of bacteria; On the other hand, it can also affect the protein metabolism of bacteria and inhibit Taq DNA polymerase. Rosmarinic acid has antibacterial activity against both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to rosmarinic acid is significantly higher than that of Escherichia coli.
(1) Bacterial inhibition: Rosmarinic acid has significant inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudococcus sanguis and Escherichia coli.
(2) Fungus inhibition: the inhibitory activity of rosmarinic acid on the mycelial growth and spore germination of different plant pathogenic fungi.
(3) Inhibition of mold: rosmarinic acid extracted from plants can inhibit phytophthora and its spores, which cause soil borne diseases, and effectively reduce the germination of zoospores.
4. Anti inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid
(1) Anti nephritis effect: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells and glomerular expansion.
(2) Anti hepatitis effect: Rosmarinic acid can reduce the liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and significantly inhibit the increase of plasma transaminase level, which proves that the liver protection effect of rosmarinic acid is through the elimination or reduction of superoxide or oxidation of nitrite rather than through the inhibition of TNF - α Resulting from.
(3) Anti pneumonia effect: Rosmarinic acid inhibits the lung injury characterized by neutrophil retention and interstitial edema induced by diesel exhaust particles.
(4) Anti arthritis effect: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit collagen induced arthritis and significantly reduce the number of arthritis and affected joints.
(5) Anti periodontitis effect: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the formation of bacterial plaque, thus preventing chronic gingivitis.
(6) Anti dermatitis effect: Rosmarinic acid can relieve atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema or hereditary allergic eczema.
5. Antiviral effect of rosmarinic acid
(1) Anti herpesvirus: Rosmarinic acid shows special activity to herpes simplex virus type I and type II, and is an effective ingredient for controlling herpes disease. Its antiviral activity can not only inhibit the activity of some enzymes in the life cycle of the virus, but also quickly combine with the viral coat protein, thus inactivating the virus.
(2) Anti HIV: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the activity of HIV - 1 (human immunodeficiency virus 1) integrase.
(3) Anti encephalitis virus: Rosmarinic acid can reduce the mortality of mice with Japanese encephalitis virus, significantly reduce the viral load, and make the virus difficult to spread.
6. Anti cancer and anti-tumor effects of rosmarinic acid:
Rosmarinic acid through inhibition β- The kinase activity and nuclear factor kappa B start related genes to inhibit the expression of CCL11 and CCR3, so as to achieve the purpose of anti-tumor.
7. Antiallergic effect of rosmarinic acid:
Rosmarinic acid can inhibit allergic inflammation induced by micro allergens.
Rosmarinic acid is widely distributed in plants, mainly in Labiatae, Lithosperaceae, Umbelliferae, Cucurbitaceae, Tiliaceae and other plants. The content of rosmarinic acid in plants of different genera is quite different. Even in the same plant, the content in different parts is also different. For example, the content of rosmarinic acid in Menthaspicata leaves is only 0.009%, while that in Menthaspicata roots is 4.574%. And rosmarinic acid content in the same part of the same plant also changes due to different harvest times. For example, rosmarinic acid content of Rabdosia rubescens collected in early June can reach 2.317%, while that of Rabdosia rubescens collected in early August is only 0.827%.