Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-12-14 Origin: Site
Sodium saccharin is an organic compound, it is also a food additive and has no nutritional value for human body. When eating more, it will affect the normal secretion of digestive enzymes in the stomach and intestines, reduce the absorption capacity of the small intestine, and reduce appetite. Many countries have limited the use of saccharin sodium in food processing. In production and operation activities, a few enterprises, in order to one-sided pursue the sweetness and color of products or extend the shelf life of products, illegally and excessively use saccharin sodium and other food additives, which pose a potential threat to human health.
Sodium saccharin is a commonly used synthetic sweetener in the food industry, and it has the longest history of use, but it is also the most controversial synthetic sweetener.
Sodium saccharin, also known as sodium phthalate sulfonimide, it was developed in 1879. It is the first synthetic non nutritive sweetener used. It is soluble in water, and its sweetness in dilute solution is 200~500 times that of sucrose. When it is concentrated, it has a bitter taste. When it is heated under acidic conditions, the sweet taste disappears, and it can form bitter o-aminosulfonylbenzoic acid. It is used as a sugar substitute for patients with obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and dental caries because of its low calorie, non absorption, and automatic excretion with urine and urine. In addition, it can also be used as brightener, blood circulation measuring agent, penetrant, etc. of nickel chromium electroplating, with a wide range of uses.
In terms of sweetness, the anions decomposed from saccharin sodium have a strong sweet taste, while there is no sweet taste in the molecular state, and they feel bitter. The solubility and dissociation of saccharin sodium are large, so the sweetness is strong. Sodium saccharin will decompose slowly after boiling. If it is used with other sweeteners in proper proportion, it can be closer to the sweet taste of granulated sugar. Sodium saccharin does not cause food staining and fermentation.
When its concentration is relatively high, it has a bitter taste. Heating saccharin sodium under acidic conditions will lose its sweet taste, and form a bitter o-sulfamoyl benzoic acid. This substance is colorless and stable in performance. Because its heat is relatively low, it is not easy to be absorbed by the human body, but can be discharged out of the body with urine and urine. Therefore, saccharin sodium is used as a substitute for sugar by patients with obesity, hyperlipidemia and other diseases.
Sodium saccharin is an American G Fahlarg and I Reman invented it. The United States began to industrialize the production of saccharin sodium in 1910. The sweetness of saccharin sodium is about 200~500 times that of sucrose, and its price is low and its performance is stable, so it is widely used. As for saccharin sodium, its disadvantages are mainly shown as follows: when its concentration exceeds 0.03%, it has a bitter taste. Under acidic conditions, when saccharin sodium is heated, its sweet taste will gradually disappear, and at the same time, it will change into o-sulfamoyl benzoic acid with a bitter taste. In recent years, the carcinogenesis of saccharin sodium has received widespread attention, which to some extent affects its scope of use.
Since the 1960s, China has mainly synthesized sweeteners with saccharin sodium. Due to the safety problems, China has begun to control its production and application, and has shut down some small-scale manufacturers, while limiting the capacity of large plants. As an artificial sweetener, sodium saccharin is mainly used in pickles, fruit juices, preserves, and prepared wines. It is indispensable in people's lives. The toothpaste, food, and drinks we use to brush our teeth every day contain sodium saccharin.
In the United States, saccharin sodium is also mainly used in food, medicine and other industries, with about 61% used in non-alcoholic beverages, 20% used in food sweeteners, and 19% used in other foods and beverages, that is, about 60% - 80% of saccharin sodium is used in food and beverages.
The development of sodium saccharin industry is restricted by the national industrial policy. For sodium saccharin products, the state implements fixed production, production and sales restriction, and total volume control. The enterprise needs to approve the annual production plan. At present, there are 4 national designated manufacturers of saccharin sodium in China. The quality of saccharin sodium produced by them has reached the national standard and the internationally recognized British Pharmacopoeia standard.
Generally, sodium saccharin is mainly produced by toluene method and phthalic anhydride method. Among them, in the process of producing sodium saccharin by toluene method, o-toluenesulfonamide is generally generated as an intermediate, and insoluble saccharin is often generated after o-toluenesulfonamide is oxidized and acidified. In the actual production process, due to incomplete oxidation, unreacted o-toluenesulfonamide cannot be completely separated, and o-toluenesulfonamide is a carcinogen. In this case, the national industrial policy further restricts the development of sodium saccharin industry. For this reason, the state carries out fixed point production and limited production and sales control on sodium saccharin products. Enterprises need to approve their annual production plans. They also have strict management on the use of sodium saccharin products.
Sodium saccharin is still a highly polluting industry. The production of sodium saccharin consumes 14 kinds of chemical raw and auxiliary materials, such as strong acid and alkali. Every 1t of sodium saccharin requires 13.2t of raw materials and 24t of water. The total discharge of its waste is up to 26.2t, which usually pollutes the environment. However, in terms of production process, after long-term improvement and continuous improvement, the production process of saccharin sodium has become mature. The domestic production of saccharin sodium from phthalic anhydride has reached the international advanced level in both yield and quality, and has strong competitiveness in the international market.
The phenomenon that sodium saccharin used in food exceeds the standard and expands the scope of use without authorization is relatively serious. According to the data, the application of sodium saccharin in food has obvious phenomenon of exceeding the range and quantity. In order to reduce production costs and seek huge profits, some manufacturers generally use sodium saccharin to replace sucrose in beverages, preserved fruits, and even in foods such as jelly for children's consumption. However, they do not make any marks on food labels, thus seriously violating consumers' right to know to a certain extent.
Sodium saccharin is widely used in urban and rural markets in china. The China Consumer Association has investigated nearly one hundred kinds of beverages of different grades and types in China. The survey results show that about 61.2% of beverages nationwide contain various sweeteners, of which about 55.1% contain sodium saccharin; About 23.5% of the beverages used sodium saccharin in different degrees in the production process, but it was not clearly indicated in the label.