Thyroid
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Thyroid

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Thyroid Introduction

Thyroid powder is mainly used to maintain normal body development and promote metabolism. It is mainly used for cretinism (cretinism), myxedema and other hypothyroidism caused by insufficient thyroid hormone function. Combined use with phenytoin, aspirin, and oral hypoglycemic agents can increase their effects, and the adverse reactions will also aggravate accordingly. Special attention should be paid to avoid taking them at the same time.

Thyroid biological effect

1. Promote growth and development

The growth-promoting effect of thyroid powder is most obvious in infancy, with the greatest impact in the first four months of life. It mainly promotes the growth and development of bones, brain and reproductive organs. Without thyroid powder, the GH of the pituitary gland cannot function. Moreover, when thyroid powder is deficient, the production and secretion of GH by the pituitary gland also decreases. So congenital or childhood lack of thyroid powder, causing cretinism. Cretinism patients have stagnant bone growth and short stature, the length ratio of the upper and lower body is abnormal, and the proportion of the upper body exceeds that of normal people. And because of nerve cell dendrites, axons, myelin sheath and glial cell growth disorder, brain hypoplasia and mental retardation. Their sexual organs also cannot mature. Patients must supplement thyroid powder about three months after birth, later than this period, the treatment is often ineffective.

2. Effect on metabolism

(1) Thermogenic effect Thyroid powder can increase the oxygen consumption rate of most tissues and increase the thermogenic effect. This thermogenic effect may be due to the fact that thyroid powder can increase the synthesis of Na+- K+pump on cell membrane and increase its activity, which is an energy consuming process. Thyroxine increases the basal metabolic rate, and 1mg of thyroxine can increase heat production by 4000KJ. The basal metabolic rate of patients with hyperthyroidism can be increased by about 35%; The basal metabolic rate of patients with low function can be reduced by about 15%.

(2) The effect on the metabolism of the three major nutrients is very complex. In general, under normal circumstances, thyroid powder mainly promotes protein synthesis, especially the protein synthesis of bone, skeletal muscle and liver, which is of great significance to the growth and development of young people. However, the excessive secretion of thyroid powder will cause a large amount of protein, especially the protein of skeletal muscle, to be broken down, so that they will become emaciated and weak. In terms of sugar metabolism, thyroid powder can promote the absorption of sugar and the decomposition of liver glycogen. At the same time, it can also promote the utilization of sugar in peripheral tissues. In a word, it accelerates the metabolism of sugar and fat, especially the decomposition and oxidation of sugar, fat and protein in many tissues, thus increasing the oxygen consumption and heat production of the body.

3. Other aspects

In addition, thyroid powder also plays an important role in the activities of some organs. It is important to maintain the excitability of the nervous system. Thyroid powder can directly act on myocardium, promote sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+, enhance myocardial contractility and accelerate heart rate.

functional regulation

The function regulation of thyroid powder is the same as that of thyroid powder.

(1) Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid function axis

The neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamus secrete TRH, which promotes the secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland. TSH is the main hormone that regulates thyroid secretion. After the pituitary gland is removed, the TSH in the blood disappears rapidly, the iodine absorption rate of the thyroid gland decreases, and the gland gradually shrinks, maintaining the lowest level of secretion only by self-regulation (see below). Injecting TSH into this animal can maintain the normal secretion of thyroid gland. Cutting off the connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary portal vein, or damaging the thyroid-stimulating area of the hypothalamus can significantly reduce the TRH content in the blood, and the TSH and thyroid powder content will also decrease accordingly. This shows that there is a functional connection between the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid.

The concentration of thyroid powder in the blood often feedbacks the activity of regulating the secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland. When the concentration of free thyroid powder in the blood increases, it will inhibit the secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland, which is a negative feedback. This feedback inhibition is an important part of maintaining the stability of thyroid function. When the secretion of thyroid powder decreases, the secretion of TSH increases, which promotes the compensatory increase of thyroid follicles to supplement the synthesis of thyroid powder to supply the body's needs.

(2) Other stimuli inside and outside the body

Various stimuli inside and outside the body can pass through receptors and afferent nerves to the central nervous system to promote or inhibit the secretion of TRH from the hypothalamus, and then affect the secretion of thyroxine. For example, cold is to promote thyroid secretion through the above-mentioned links through skin cold receptors.

(3) Self-regulation

Thyroid nervous system

The self-regulation of thyroid function refers to the regulation of the secretion of thyroxine by the thyroid gland itself in response to the supply of iodine in the case of complete lack of TSH or basically unchanged TSH concentration. When there is too much iodine in the food, the transport of iodine in the synthesis process of thyroid powder will be inhibited at first, and the synthesis process will also be inhibited, so that the synthesis of thyroid powder will decrease obviously. If the amount of iodine increases again, its anti-thyroid hormone synthesis effect disappears, increasing the synthesis of thyroid powder. In addition, excessive iodine also inhibits the release of thyroid powder. On the contrary, when the supply of exogenous iodine is insufficient, the iodine transport mechanism will be strengthened, and the synthesis and release of thyroid powder will also increase, so that the secretion of thyroid powder will not be too low. The mechanism of action of iodine is unknown.

(4) The role of the sympathetic nerve

Thyroid follicles are innervated by sympathetic nerves, and electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves can increase the synthesis of thyroid powder.


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