Vitamin B9, Also Known as Folic Acid
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Vitamin B9, Also Known as Folic Acid

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-10-26      Origin: Site

Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin with the molecular formula C19H19N7O6. It is also called pteroylglutamic acid because of its rich content in green leaves. There are several forms in nature, and the parent compound is composed of three components: pteridine, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamic acid.

Folic acid contains one or more glutamyl groups. Most naturally occurring folic acid is in the form of polyglutamic acid. The bioactive form of folic acid is tetrahydrofolate. Folic acid is yellow crystal, slightly soluble in water, but its sodium salt is very soluble in water. Insoluble in ethanol. It is easy to be destroyed in acid solution, unstable to heat, easy to lose in room temperature, and easy to be destroyed in light.

Folic acid has active absorption and diffusion passive absorption in vivo, and the absorption site is mainly in the upper part of the small intestine. The absorption rate of reduced folic acid is higher, and the more glutamyl groups, the lower the absorption rate. Glucose and vitamin C can promote absorption. After absorption, folic acid is stored in intestinal wall, liver, bone marrow and other tissues in the body. With the participation of NADPH, it is reduced by folic acid reductase to tetrahydrofolate (THFA or FH4) with physiological activity, which is involved in the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine. Therefore, folic acid plays an important role in protein synthesis, cell division and growth, and promotes the formation of normal red blood cells. When lacking, it can reduce the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells, block the maturation of cells, and lead to megaloblastic anemia.

Introduction to Vitamin B9

Folic acid is a derivative of pteridine. It was originally isolated from the liver. Later, it was found that the green leaves of plants are very rich, so it is called folic acid. It widely exists in meat, fresh fruits and vegetables. It is a yellow crystalline powder, tasteless and odorless. Its sodium salt is easily soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, ether and other organic solvents, insoluble in cold water but slightly soluble in hot water. It is unstable in acid solution and easy to be destroyed by light.Vitamin B9 buy-herb-key

Human intestinal bacteria can synthesize folic acid, so it is not easy to lack. Folic acid deficiency can be caused by malabsorption, metabolic disorder or long-term use of intestinal antibacterial drugs. In addition, folic acid is also widely found in animal and plant foods, including viscera, eggs, fish, pears, broad beans, beets, spinach, cauliflower, celery, lettuce, citrus, nuts and beans. The daily intake of folic acid is maintained at 3.1 μ When g/kg, the body can have adequate folic acid reserves; The total daily folic acid intake of pregnant women should be more than 350 μ g; The safe intake of infants by kg is similar to that of adults, i.e. 3.6 per day μ G/kg can meet the needs of growth and maintenance of normal hemogram.

Origin of vitamin B9

In 1931, Dr. L Wills et al. found that yeast or liver concentrate had a certain effect on megaloblastic anemia symptoms of pregnant women, and believed that these extracts contained certain anti anemia factors; In 1935, it was found that yeast and liver extracts had a certain effect on anemia symptoms in monkeys, which was described as VM; In 1939, someone found the anti anemia factor in the liver, called VBe; In 1941, H.K. Mitchell et al. found a factor of lactic acid streptococcus in spinach, called folic acid. In 1945, R.B. Angier et al. found that all the above factors were the same substance when synthesizing pteroylglutamic acid, and completed the structural determination. Later, they were often called folic acid. Therefore, folic acid is also called vitamin B9, anti anemia factor, pteroylglutamic acid, etc.

Causes of vitamin B9 deficiency

Folic acid has the following effects on organisms: it participates in the metabolism of genetic materials and proteins; Affect animal reproductive performance; Affect the secretion of animal pancreas; Promote the growth of animals; Improve the immunity of the body. The possible causes of folic acid deficiency include inadequate intake; Increased demand; Intestinal absorption disorder; Vitamin C deficiency; Use folic acid antagonists; Liver disease, etc.

Vitamin B9 source absorption needs

Folic acid is widely distributed in green leafy plants, such as spinach, beet, broccoli and other green leafy vegetables. It is also widely found in animal foods (liver, kidney, egg yolk, etc.), fruits (citrus, kiwi, etc.) and yeast, but it is less contained in rhizome vegetables, corn, rice, and pork. However, among these green leafy vegetables, the main ones with high folic acid content are Dongfeng Dishes, horseshoe leaves, mountain tip seed vegetables, willow sprouts, acanthopanax senticosus bark and wild asparagus, with the contents of 36.195, 23.478, 20.137, 67.600, 59.553 and 22.032 respectively μ g/g。

Folic acid in the form of polyglutamic acid entering the body must be degraded into free folic acid before it can be absorbed by the body. Polyglutamic acid folate is hydrolyzed by γ- L-Glutamyl carboxypeptidase. Folate binding proteins play a key role in the digestion, distribution and storage of folic acid. Three kinds of folate binding proteins have been found: high affinity folate binding proteins, membrane related binding proteins and cytoplasmic binding proteins. High affinity folate binding protein protects the stable existence of folic acid in the blood, and may also control the specificity of folate distribution in the plasma.

In general, the demand of normal people is 100~200 μ G/d, recommended by the World Health Organization: 200 adults μ G/d, pregnant women and nursing mothers 400 μ g/d. The FDA's latest folic acid consumption standard is as follows: 240 for men aged 25 to 50 μ g/d; 190 for 25-50 years old (female) μ g/d; 400 for nursing mothers and pregnant women μ g/d; 200~400 infants μ g/d.

Folic acid classification

Pregnant women's folic acid: also known as folic acid, mainly composed of folic acid alone. Sometimes a small amount of minerals and other vitamins will be added according to the needs of pregnant women. The main effect is to supplement folic acid for pregnant women to prevent the rapid cell division during the development of the fetus, which requires the participation of a large amount of folic acid. The lack of folic acid in pregnant women will lead to spina bifida, anencephaly and other diseases in the fetus.

Adult folic acid: also known as compound folic acid, it takes folic acid as the main component, and at the same time, it is compounded with various effective substances suitable for the needs of middle-aged and elderly people. The main effect is to supplement folic acid for middle-aged and elderly people, rapidly reduce the level of HCY, and prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents caused by high HCY levels. At the same time, through the combination of other effective substances, three-dimensional prevention and control of stroke and myocardial infarction. Adult folic acid tablets are also called middle-aged and elderly folic acid tablets.